The Republic of Burundi has an estimated population of 8.5 million (UN, 2010). The capital is Bujumbura. Burundi has an area of 27,816 sq km (10,740 sq miles). The main languages are Kirundi (official), French (official), and Swahili.
Burundi became independent in 1961. Soon after independence, widespread ethnic violence between the dominant minority Tutsi and the Hutu flooded the country for nearly 12 years. Up to 200,000 people died in the Burundi civil war, which began in 1993, and hundred of thousands of people were internally displaced. The country is now recovering from the 12 years civil war after a ceasefire agreement in 2008.
Sexual violence and domestic violence, among other forms of violence, are widespread in Burundi due to the discriminatory Government legislation. Despite the introduction of free primary education in 2005, there is still a disparity between boys and girls mainly in secondary and higher education.